We have studied atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) and nighttime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) by applying three-dimensional spectral analysis technique to 557.7- and 630.0-nm airglow images at Shigaraki (SGK) (35°N, 136°E, 1999–2017) and Rikubetsu (RIK) (44°N, 144°E, 1999–2017), Japan, Athabasca (ATH), Canada, (55°N, 247°E, 2005–2017), and Magadan (MGD), Russia (60°N, 151°E, 2008–2017), focusing on their horizontal wavenumber spectra. For the AGWs in 557.7-nm images, the power spectra in summer are stronger than in other seasons, probably due to stronger tropospheric convection. The highest energy content of the waves are mostly at wavelengths between 20 and 300 km at MGD, ATH, and RIK, while it is above 200 km at SGK. The largest power spectral density is obtained at RIK at wavelengths of 30–100 km and then ATH. The slopes of the horizontal wavenumber spectra varies from −2.77 to −3.22. From the MSTIDs in 630.0-nm images, the power spectra in summer at RIK and SGK are stronger than those in other seasons regardless of solar activity. The power spectra in solar quiet time are stronger than those in solar active time at all four stations. These features can be explained by the Perkins instability with coupling between sporadic E and F layers. The spectral slope decreases with increasing latitudes. Weak positive correlations were obtained between the daily wave power of AGWs in 557.7-nm images and MSTIDs in 630.0-nm images, suggesting that the MSTIDs in the thermosphere may be partially generated by the AGWs from the mesopause region.
|Journal||Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Mar. 2020|
- 3-dimensional spectral analysis
- gravity wave
- medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance