ViTab Transformer Framework for Predicting Induced Electric Field and Focality in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Barna Ghosh, Khaleda Akhter Sathi, Md Kamal Hosain, Md Azad Hossain, M. Ali Akber Dewan, Abbas Z. Kouzani

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review


Transcranial magnetic stimulation is an electromagnetic induction-based non-invasive therapeutic technique for neurological diseases. For finding new clinical applications and enhancing the efficacy of TMS in existing neurological disorders, the current study focuses on a deep learning-based prediction model as an alternative to time-consuming electromagnetic (EM) simulation software. The main bottleneck of the existing prediction models is to consider very few input parameters of a standard coil such as coil type and coil position for predicting an output of electric field value. To overcome this limitation, a transformer-based prediction model titled as ViTab transformer is developed in this work to predict electric field (E-max), focality or area of stmulation (S-half), and volume of stimulation (V-half) by considering several input parameters such as sources of MRI images, types of coils, coil position, rate of change of current, brain tissues conductivity, and coil distance from the scalp. The proposed framework consists of a vision and a tab transformer to handle both image and tabular-type data. The prediction performance of the offered model is evaluated in terms of coefficient determination, R2 score, for E-max, V-half, and S-half in the testing phase. The obtained result in terms of R2 score for E-max, V-half, and S-half are found 0.97, 0.87, and 0.90 respectively. The results indicate that the suggested ViTab transformer model can predict electric field as well as focality more accurately than the current state-of-the-art methods. The reduced computational time, as well as efficient prediction accuracy, resembles that ViTab transformer can assist the neuroscientist and neurosurgeon prior to providing superior TMS treatment in near future.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4713-4724
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • MRI images
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • electric field
  • focality
  • regression
  • transformer


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