The state of open and distance education

Adnan Qayyum, Olaf Zawacki-Richter

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


In this chapter, we compare and analyze the main findings from the 12 countries examined in the two book volumes on Open and Distance Education (ODE). Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, India, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States represent 51% of the world’s population. As such, the two volumes about provide a portrait, though not exhaustive, of open and distance education in a large part of the world. We discuss growing enrollments in ODE, ODE as part of educational growth at all levels of education, the ascendance of online education globally, the mainstreaming of distance education, the digital transformation of education, and growing competition in ODE. We propose that values, environment, demand and ICTs (VEDI) are the main drivers of change in open and distance education in the world today.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringerBriefs in Open and Distance Education
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameSpringerBriefs in Open and Distance Education
ISSN (Print)2509-4335
ISSN (Electronic)2509-4343


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