Technologies Linking Learning, Cognition, and Instruction

Sabine Graf, Kinshuk

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


People prefer to learn in many different ways. Furthermore, individuals have different cognitive abilities that influence the way effective learning takes place. Incorporating individual differences such as learning styles and cognitive abilities into education makes learning easier and increases the learner’s performance. In contrast, learners whose needs are not supported by the learning environment experience problems in the learning process. In this chapter, we introduce some cognitive traits that are important for learning and also discuss how to incorporate different abilities in educational systems. In regard to learning styles, some major approaches as well as possible strategies for involving learning styles in online courses are presented. In the next section, recent research dealing with identifying learning styles and cognitive traits based on the behavior of students during a course is presented. This information is necessary to provide adaptive courses. Finally, the relationship between cognitive traits and learning styles is discussed. This relationship leads to additional information and therefore to a more reliable student model.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, Third Edition
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781135596910
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan. 2008


  • Cognitive abilities: Abilities to perform any of the functions involved in cognition whereby cognition can be defined as the mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.
  • Learning styles: There is no single agreed definition of learning styles; a general definition is provided by Honey and Mumford (1992), who said that a learning style is a description of the attitudes and behaviors that determine an individual’s preferred way of learning.
  • Student modeling: Student models store information about students, including domain competence and individual domain-independent characteristics. Student modeling is the process of building and updating the student model.


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