Teaching, Learning, and Beyond

Martha F. Cleveland-Innes, D. Randy Garrison

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


It has become more than evident that approaches to teaching and learning in higher education are being transformed in response to multiple factors, but particularly in reference to new pedagogies and new technologies. Less clear isthe direction pedagogical and technological developments will take higher education, place-based, and distance educatio institutions. The sine qua non of distance education has been independent study through prepared course materials that would guide the self-directed individual learner. Teaching was embedded in the instructional materials provided the student. The exclusive goal of this approach was to provide access to new knowledge at minimal cost. Serious pedagogical compromises were necessary to reach this goal of greatly expanded access. What has radically changed as a result of these developments is a focus on the nature and quality of the educational transaction. Interaction and independence are no longer a zero-sum game. Access is no longer tied to low-cost independent study approaches.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAn Introduction to Distance Education
Subtitle of host publicationUnderstanding Teaching and Learning in a New Era, 2nd Edition
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781351681353
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan. 2018


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