To understand the mechanism of the increased frequency of intervals of pulsations of diminishing periods (IPDPs), we analyzed IPDP-type electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves that occurred on 19 April 2017, using ground and satellite observations. Observations by low-altitude satellites and ground-based magnetometers indicate that the increased IPDP frequency is caused by an inward (i.e., Earthward) shift of the EMIC wave source region. The EMIC wave source region moves inward along the mid-latitude trough, which we used as a proxy for the plasmapause location. A statistical analysis shows that increases in the IPDP frequency showed a positive correlation with polar cap potentials. These results suggest an enhanced convection electric field causes an inward shift of the source region. The inward shift of the source region allows EMIC waves to scatter relativistic electrons over a wide range of radial distances during the IPDP event. This mechanism suggests that IPDP-type EMIC waves are more likely to scatter relativistic electrons than other EMIC waves. We also show that the decreased phase-space density of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt is consistent with the extent of the source region and the resonant energy of EMIC waves, implying a possible contribution of EMIC waves to outer radiation belt loss during the main phase of geomagnetic storms.
|Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
|Published - Aug. 2023
- EMIC waves
- radiation belt
- relativistic electrons