Renormalizing citizenship and life in Fortress North America

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53 Citations (Scopus)


The relation between the concepts of sovereignty and citizenship are being rearticulated through what is popularly referred to as 'Fortress North America'. The 'War on Terror' has amplified previously emerging shifts in governance, control and surveillance. One significant consequence is the development of increasing border harmonization schemes between the United States of America and Canada. This development has led to newly emerging technologies of citizenship in both Canada and the USA. This paper pays particular attention to the shifts that are taking place with regards to the revocation of citizenship, the creation of new categories of citizenship through programs such as 'Nexus' and the proposed introduction of bio-metric ID cards in Canada and the introduction of the discourse of the 'new normal'. Through new border harmonization programs established in the 'Smart Border Declaration' citizens and non-citizens in both Canada and America will be organized, controlled and subjected to new forms of state surveillance. The discourse of the 'new normal' is meant to signal a shift in our expectations of daily life. Whether we are experiencing the 'new normal' due to disease, fear, risk, loss of faith or security, we are being called into place as subjects of this discourse. The 'new normal' is used in reference to the need for greater control, the expectation of greater security and surveillance of cells, microbes, bodies and society. This paper will explore the logic that is embedded within the discourse of the 'new normal'.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-278
Number of pages18
JournalCitizenship Studies
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep. 2004


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