Reflection - Quantifying a rare good

Thomas Daniel Ullmann, Fridolin Wild, Peter Scott

    Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

    4 Citations (Scopus)


    Based on a literature review, reflections in written text are rare. The reported proportions of reflection are based on different baselines, making comparisons difficult. In contrast, this research reports on the proportion of occurrences of elements of reflection based on sentence level. This metric allows to compare proportions of elements of reflection. Previous studies are based on courses tailored to foster reflection. The reported proportions represent more the success of a specific instruction than informing about proportions of reflections occurring in student writings in general. This study is based on a large sample of course forum posts of a virtual learning environment. In total 1000 sentences were randomly selected and manually classified according to six elements of reflection. Five raters rated each sentence. Agreement was calculated based on a majority vote. The proportions of elements of reflection are reported and its potential application for course analytics demonstrated. The results indicate that reflections in text are indeed rare, and that there are differences within elements of reflection.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)29-40
    Number of pages12
    JournalCEUR Workshop Proceedings
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    Event3rd Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning, ARTEL 2013 - In Conjunction with the 8th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning: Scaling Up Learning for Sustained Impact, ECTEL 2013 - Paphos, Cyprus
    Duration: 17 Sep. 2013 → …


    • Quantification
    • Reflection
    • Reflection analytics
    • Reflection detection
    • Reflective thinking
    • Reflective writing


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