Possible generation mechanisms for Pc1 pearl structures in the ionosphere based on 6 years of ground observations in Canada, Russia, and Japan

Chae Woo Jun, Kazuo Shiokawa, Martin Connors, Ian Schofield, Igor Poddelsky, Boris Shevtsov

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We investigate pearl structures (amplitude modulations) of Pc1 pulsations simultaneously observed at Athabasca (ATH, 54.7°N, 246.7°E, L = 4.3) in Canada, Magadan (MGD, 60.1°N, 150.7°E, L = 2.6) in Russia, and Moshiri (MOS, 44.4°N, 142.3°E, L = 1.5) in Japan. From 6 years of ground observations, from 2008 to 2013, we selected 84 Pc1 events observed simultaneously at the longitudinally separated stations (ATH and MGD) and 370 events observed at the latitudinally separated stations (MGD and MOS), all with high coherence (>0.7) of Pc1 waveforms. We calculated the cross-correlation coefficient (similarity: r) for the Pc1 pearl structures and found that more than half of the events in both pairs had low similarity (r < 0.7), indicating that most Pc1 waves exhibit different pearl structures at different stations. We found that high-similarity Pc1 pearl structures (r > 0.7) at the longitudinally separated stations are concentrated from 6 to 15 UT when both stations are in the nighttime. The similarity of Pc1 pearl structures tends to show a negative correlation with the standard deviation of the polarization angle in both pairs. The observed repetition period of Pc1 pearl structures has a clear positive correlation with the repetition period estimated from Pc1 bandwidth by assuming beating of different frequencies. From these results, we suggest that ionospheric beating effect could be a dominant process for the generation of Pc1 pearl structures. Beating processes in the ionosphere with a spatially distributed ionospheric source can cause the different shapes of Pc1 pearl structures at different observation points during ionospheric duct propagation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4409-4424
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics
Volume121
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016

Keywords

  • Pc1 pearl structure
  • Pc1 pulsation
  • ULF waves
  • multipoint ground observation
  • statistical analysis

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