Physiological and biochemical responses of the pulmonate mud snail, Amphibola crenata, to waterborne cadmium (Cd) were investigated to determine the mechanisms of toxicity and impacts of a 21-d Cd exposure. Mud snails were exposed to nominal Cd concentrations of 0, 0.2, 4 and 8 mg L −1 and bioaccumulation, whole animal physiological (oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and oxygen:nitrogen), and tissue level biochemical (catalase activity, lipid peroxidation, glycogen, glucose and protein) endpoints were measured every 7 days. At the two highest Cd exposure concentrations complete mortality was observed over 21-d. In surviving animals, oxygen consumption declined and ammonia excretion rate increased with Cd exposure concentration and duration. The increased ammonia excretion likely reflected enhanced protein metabolism as suggested by a reduced oxygen:nitrogen (O:N). Increasing waterborne Cd concentration and exposure time led to increasing metal accumulation in all tissues. The snail viscera showed the highest Cd accumulation. Both catalase activity and lipid peroxidation in the viscera significantly increased with Cd exposure concentration and time, whereas, the foot muscle and remaining tissues (kidney, mantle, remaining digestive tissues and heart) showed increased catalase activity and lipid peroxidation at higher Cd concentrations (4 and 8 mg L −1), suggestive of an effect of Cd on oxidative stress. Over the course of 21 days, Cd exposure resulted in significantly lower levels of glycogen in viscera relative to Cd-free controls, reflecting an increased energy demand. Haemolymph glucose rose initially and then fell with increased exposure duration, while haemolymph protein generally exhibited an increased concentration in Cd-exposure groups, reflecting the changes in energy substrates noted for somatic tissues. These results suggest that the physiological and biochemical responses of A. crenata to Cd are conserved relative to other aquatic animals, and were tissue-specific, dose- and time-dependant.
|Published - Mar. 2023
- Mud snail
- Sub-chronic exposure trace metal
- Waterborne toxicity