Pedagogical Paradigms in Open and Distance Education

Jon Dron, Terry Anderson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Building on earlier work that identified historical paradigm shifts in open and distance learning, this chapter is concerned with analyzing the three broad pedagogical paradigms - objectivist, subjectivist, and complexivist - that have characterized learning and teaching in the field over the past half century. It goes on to discuss new paradigms that are starting to emerge, most notably in “theoryfree” models enabled by developments in artificial intelligence and analytics, hologogic methods that recognize the many cultures to which we belong, and a “bricolagogic, " theory-agnostic paradigm that reflects the field’s growing maturity and depth.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Open, Distance and Digital Education
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9789811920806
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan. 2023


  • Bricolagogy
  • Complexivist
  • Generations
  • Hologogy
  • Objectivist
  • Paradigms
  • Pedagogy
  • Subjectivist


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