Laboratory activities to support online chemistry courses: A literature review

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15 Citations (Scopus)


The laboratory is an essential element in the teaching and learning of chemistry, but it is challenging to provide this when delivering courses and programs online or at a distance. Studies have repeatedly shown that alternate laboratory modes can lead to equivalent student performance when compared with in-person experiences. In this literature review, we will examine five modes of laboratory delivery (i.e., face-to-face, virtual, remote control, home-study kits and, to a lesser extent, self-guided field trips) that may be considered in providing quality practical laboratory activities to support online studies. Each mode brings its own particular strengths and weaknesses and can be used individually or in combination. The selection and integration of those modes, which is driven by learning outcomes and other factors, will be examined as part of the design process. Finally, future laboratory design will certainly include new technologies, but potentially also elements like open educational resources, learning analytics, universal design, and citizen science.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)851-859
Number of pages9
JournalCanadian Journal of Chemistry
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Chemistry education
  • Distance
  • Home study
  • Laboratory
  • Online
  • Remote
  • Review
  • Virtual


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