This chapter introduces the purpose, structure of this second volume that explores, compares and contrast open and distance education systems in various countries. Since the mid 1990s, the digital transformation has changed the face of open and distance education as we had known it. During the last 20 years distance education has moved from the fringes into the center of mainstream education provision. Different nations and educational systems are responding differently to the macro process of digitalization. Some national systems like South Korea are more advanced and ahead on the road by making the digitization of teaching and learning a strategic goal for development and innovation already over a decade ago. In other countries distance education was recognized as a validated and accredited form of education provision only in the recent past, and is now witnessing enormous growth rates of enrollments in online distance education.