Improving conceptual learning via pretests.

Faria Sana, Veronica X. Yan, Courtney M. Clark, Elizabeth Ligon Bjork, Robert A. Bjork

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Public Significance Statement—Novice learners have difficulty seeing beyond surface features and recognizing deeper structures that define different types of problems. The current study shows that pretesting—answering questions about something before studying it—encourages novice learners to attend to and process the deeper structures of problems. Moreover, pretesting plays an important generative role above and beyond that of directing attention to key information.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Applied
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • deep structure
  • example-based learning
  • pretesting


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