Facilitating Cognitive Presence in Online Learning: Interaction Is Not Enough

D. Randy Garrison, Martha Cleveland-Innes

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

    14 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This study assessed the depth of online learning, with a focus on the nature of online interaction in four distance education course designs. The Study Process Questionnaire was used to measure the shift in students' approach to learning from the beginning to the end of the courses. Design had a significant impact on the nature of the interaction and whether students approached learning in a deep and meaningful manner. Structure and leadership were found to be crucial for online learners to take a deep and meaningful approach to learning.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)133-148
    Number of pages16
    JournalInternational Journal of Phytoremediation
    Volume21
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2005

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