Examining sex differences in glycemic index knowledge and intake among individuals with type 2 diabetes

Hayford Mawuli Avedzi, Nonsikelelo Mathe, Kate Storey, Jeffrey Allen Johnson, Steven Thomas Johnson

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

    6 Citations (Scopus)


    Aim We examined self-reported dietary behaviours and actual food intakes among adult men and women with type 2 diabetes participating in Alberta's Caring for Diabetes (ABCD) Study. Methods Participants completed 3-day food records and questions about glycemic index (GI) concept knowledge and dietary behaviours. Daily average GI and glycemic load (GL) were calculated for all carbohydrates consumed. Dietary intake was analyzed using ESHA FoodPro (version 10.13.1). Sex differences in nutrient intakes were explored across categories of GI knowledge and dietary practices. Results Participants (N = 170) mean (SD) age 65.8 (9.6) years were 46.5% women, 90.6% Caucasian with a mean BMI of 31.3 (7.0) kg/m2 and diabetes duration of 13.4 (8.6) years. Overall, 60% of men versus 40% of women consumed carbohydrates in quantities below Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR). About 80% of men versus 90% of women consumed proteins above AMDR whereas 60% versus 65% of women consumed fats above AMDR. Fibre intake among men was lower than recommended (p < 0.01). Men who reported having knowledge of the GI-concept also reported lower GI intake versus men who did not (p = 0.03). Conclusion Sex differences exist in low-GI diabetes self-care dietary behaviours among adults with type 2 diabetes participating in this study. Gender-sensitive approaches for enhancing diabetes self-care low-GI dietary behaviour should be explored.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)71-79
    Number of pages9
    JournalPrimary Care Diabetes
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Feb. 2018


    • Glycemic index
    • Sex differences
    • Type 2 diabetes


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