Emotional presence in a relationship of inquiry: The case of one-to-one online math coaching

Stefan Stenbom, Stefan Hrastinski, Martha Cleveland-Innes

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

    23 Citations (Scopus)


    Emotions have been confirmed to be a critical component of the process of learning. In the online Community of Inquiry theoretical framework, and the recently suggested online Relationship of Inquiry framework, emotions are considered a subsection of social presence. In this study, the concept of emotional presence is examined. This examination occurs within the Relationship of Inquiry framework, developed to analyze one-to-one online coaching. A survey of online coaches and a transcript coding procedure from the online coaching service Math Coach provide the data for the study. The results indicate that a Relationship of Inquiry framework consisting of cognitive, social, teaching, and emotional presence enhances the exploration of one-to-one online coaching settings. The interpretation of these results identifies emotional presence as an essential and distinct part of one-to-one online math coaching.

    Original languageEnglish
    JournalOnline Learning Journal
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2016


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