Elements of open education: An invitation to future research

Olaf Zawacki-Richter, Dianne Conrad, Aras Bozkurt, Cengiz Hakan Aydin, Svenja Bedenlier, Insung Jung, Joachim Stöter, George Veletsianos, Lisa Marie Blaschke, Melissa Bond, Andrea Broens, Elisa Bruhn, Carina Dolch, Marco Kalz, Michael Kerres, Yasar Kondakci, Victoria Marin, Kerstin Mayrberger, Wolfgang Müskens, Som NaiduAdnan Qayyum, Jennifer Roberts, Albert Sangrà, Frank Senyo Loglo, Patricia J.Slagter van Tryon, Junhong Xiao

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

    37 Citations (Scopus)


    This paper explores elements of open education within the context of higher education. After an introduction to the origins of open education and its theoretical foundations, the topics of open and distance learning, international education issues in open education, open educational practices and scholarship, open educational resources, MOOCs, prior learning accreditation and recognition, and learner characteristics are considered, following the framework of macro, meso, and micro levels of research in open and distance learning. Implications for future research at the macro, meso, and micro levels are then provided.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)319-334
    Number of pages16
    JournalInternational Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - 2020


    • Distance education
    • Flexible learning
    • Internationalization
    • Online learning
    • Open education
    • Open educational resources
    • Open learning


    Dive into the research topics of 'Elements of open education: An invitation to future research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this