Discovery of 1 Hz Range Modulation of Isolated Proton Aurora at Subauroral Latitudes

M. Ozaki, K. Shiokawa, Y. Miyoshi, R. Kataoka, M. Connors, T. Inoue, S. Yagitani, Y. Ebihara, C. W. Jun, R. Nomura, K. Sakaguchi, Y. Otsuka, H. A. Uchida, I. Schofield, D. W. Danskin

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Isolated proton aurora (IPA) is a manifestation of the wave-particle interaction visible at subauroral latitudes, with activity on many timescales. We herein present the first observational evidence of rapid luminous modulation of IPA correlated with simultaneously observed Pc1 waves observed on the ground, which are equivalent to the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the magnetosphere. The fastest luminous modulation of IPA was observed in the 1 Hz frequency range, which was twice the frequency of the related Pc1 waves. The time lag between variations of Pc1 wave power and the IPA luminosity suggests that the source regions of IPA are distributed near the magnetic equator, suggesting an EMIC wave-energetic (a few tens of keV) proton or relativistic (MeV or sub-MeV) electron interaction. The generation mechanism of this 1 Hz luminous modulation remains an open issue, but this study supports the importance of nonlinear pitch angle scattering via wave-particle interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1209-1217
Number of pages9
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 16 Feb. 2018


  • Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations
  • isolated proton aurora
  • wave-particle interaction


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