Developing a community of inquiry instrument: Testing a measure of the Community of Inquiry framework using a multi-institutional sample

J. B. Arbaugh, Martha Cleveland-Innes, Sebastian R. Diaz, D. Randy Garrison, Philip Ice, Jennifer C. Richardson, Karen P. Swan

    Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

    596 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This article reports on the multi-institutional development and validation of an instrument that attempts to operationalize Garrison, Anderson and Archer's Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework (2000). The results of the study suggest that the instrument is a valid, reliable, and efficient measure of the dimensions of social presence and cognitive presence, thereby providing additional support for the validity of the CoI as a framework for constructing effective online learning environments. While factor analysis supported the idea of teaching presence as a construct, it also suggested that the construct consisted of two factors-one related to course design and organization and the other related to instructor behavior during the course. The article concludes with a discussion of potential implications of further refinement of the CoI measures for researchers, designers, administrators, and instructors.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)133-136
    Number of pages4
    JournalInternet and Higher Education
    Volume11
    Issue number3-4
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2008

    Keywords

    • Cognitive presence
    • Community of Inquiry
    • Social presence
    • Teaching presence

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