Consumer pandemic animosity: scale development and validation

José I. Rojas-Méndez, Marta Massi, Elena Gallito

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: This study introduces and investigates the concept of consumer pandemic animosity to (1) develop and validate a scale (i.e. CPAS) to measure consumer animosity in the context of a health pandemic; and (2) identify the effects of pandemic animosity on consumer purchase intentions in the field of general consumption and tourism. Design/methodology/approach: The CPAS factor structure was initially tested on a sample of 201 American consumers based on participant interviews and expert evaluations. This exploratory phase identified two factors, namely CPAS emotions and beliefs, which were subsequently supported in the confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement and configural invariance of CPAS and discriminant and nomological validity were confirmed in an independent sample of 303 American consumers. A new sample of 203 Canadian consumers was used to test the external validity of CPAS by controlling for other types of consumer animosity dimensions. Structural equation modelling was used to test the effects of CPAS on consumer purchase intentions in general product consumption and tourism. Findings: This study contributes to expanding on the conceptualization of the consumer animosity construct that has been dealt with in economics, politics, culture and religion but never of a pandemic health crisis to date. Results indicate the psychometric soundness of the CPAS and the multifaceted nature of this construct by clearly identifying two levels of animosity (i.e. beliefs and emotions). Moreover, the structural model shows a significant and unique impact of pandemic animosity on consumer purchase intentions and travel intentions. Originality/value: This is the first empirical study proposing a new scale to measure the consumer disposition of animosity developed due to a pandemic affecting the world. It also offers a new dimension to the typology of animosity proposed by Jung et al. (2002): intentionality (intention-driven vs non-intention-driven). This paper presents a number of propositions that serve to identify testable hypotheses amenable both to validation and usefulness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1417-1442
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Marketing Review
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov. 2022


  • Beliefs and emotions
  • CPA scale
  • China
  • Consumer pandemic animosity
  • Product purchase intention
  • Travel intention


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