Assessing the Digital Transformation of Education Systems: An International Comparison

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The digital transformation of education has been underway for decades at differing paces across the world. In this chapter, an education digitization index is proposed in order to assess the extent of digital transformation in various countries. The education digitization index is composed for four variables: digital assets, digital use, digital labor, and digital outcomes. While a lot of research and practice in education has been on digital use - applying particular digital educational technologies - countries with substantial digital assets and a commitment to digital labor are able to transform education systems more readily. Digital assets and digital labor have become more important during the pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Open, Distance and Digital Education
Number of pages18
ISBN (Electronic)9789811920806
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan. 2023


  • Digital readiness
  • Digitization index
  • Education policy
  • Evaluation
  • Online education


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