A comparison of motivations for use among users of crack cocaine and cocaine powder in a sample of simultaneous cocaine and alcohol users

Gina Martin, Scott Macdonald, Basia Pakula, Eric A. Roth

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal Articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study examined the motivations for using cocaine and alcohol comparing those who primarily smoked crack and those who primarily used cocaine powder when using simultaneously with alcohol. Motivations examined included: 1) to cope with a negative affect, 2) enhancement, 3) to be social and 4) to conform. The research design was a cross-sectional study in which clients in treatment for cocaine and alcohol problems completed a self-administered questionnaire about their substance use. Among those who primarily smoked crack or snorted cocaine when also using alcohol (n = 153), there were 93 participants who reported primarily snorting cocaine and 60 participants who primarily reported smoking crack. Bivariate analyses found that those who primarily smoked crack reported lower social motivations to use alcohol and cocaine. When adjusting for other covariates in a multivariate analysis, social motivation was still significantly different between groups. Additionally, those who primarily smoked crack were more likely to be older, report higher cocaine dependence severity, be unemployed and were less likely to have completed some post-secondary education, than those who primarily snorted cocaine. No differences were found in enhancement, coping or conformity motivations between the two groups. These results suggest that simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use may have social importance to those who primarily snort cocaine, but that this importance is less evident to those who smoke crack. Consequently, future studies examining motivations for simultaneous cocaine and alcohol use should distinguish between different routes of cocaine administration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)699-702
Number of pages4
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Volume39
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar. 2014

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • Cocaethylene
  • Cocaine
  • Motivations
  • Route of administration
  • Simultaneous use

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